The public relies on safe drinking water, and effective waste treatment. Drinking water comes from wells taping into groundwater, or surface waters from lakes and streams. Certain contaminants in drinking water can lead to health issues, including gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 gives the Environmental Protection Agency authority to set and oversee standards for drinking water quality. Additionally, under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program, treatment facilities are regulated as a point source, and are required to meet specific criteria for discharging into US waters. Testing is required for discharge permit application. NPDES permits establish limits and discharge conditions for wastewater treatment facilities. Testing requirements include Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS), heavy metals, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and coliforms.